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Bibliography of Mid-Atlantic Dialects

Here are some bibliographical references I have collected in the course of my research. This list is neither complete nor comprehensive, and a diligent researcher can certainly uncover more sources in local books and periodicals. Feel free to contact me if you have written or know of more references that you think should be included here.           --Claudio Salvucci

General interest, with some information on Mid-Atlantic dialects
Allen, Harold B.  1977.  "Regional Dialects 1945-1974."  American Speech 52:163-261
Atwood, E. Bagby.  1953.  A Survey of Verb Forms in the Eastern United States.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Baron, Dennis E.  (ed.)  An Index by Region, Usage, and Etymology to the Dictionary of American Regional English.
Carver, Craig M.  1989.  American Regional Dialects: A Word Geography.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Cassidy, Frederic G.  (ed.)  1985.  The Dictionary of American Regional English.  Cambridge: Belknap Press.
Herman, Lewis and Herman, Marguerite Shalett.  1947.  American Dialects: A Manual for Actors, Directors, and Writers.  New York: Theatre Arts Books.
Kurath, Hans.  1949.  A Word Geography of the Eastern United States.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kurath, Hans and McDavid, Raven I.  1961.  The Pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Labov, William; Yaeger, Malcah; and Steiner, Richard.  1972.  A Quantitative Study of Sound Change in Progress.  Philadelphia: the U.S. Regional Survey.
Labov, William.  1994.   Principles of Linguistic Change: Internal Factors.  Cambridge: Blackwell.
[Contains several chapters devoted to Mid-Atlantic linguistics.  Reviews various studies of mostly Philadelphia and New York City, but also touches on the "Northern Cities" (including Albany, Buffalo, and Rochester), and some issues of rural Pennsylvania speech.]
Mencken, H.L.  1962 (6th printing).  The American Language: Supplement II.  New York:Alfred A. Knopf.
Pederson, Lee.  1977.  "Studies of American Pronunciation Since 1945."  American Speech 52:262-327
Thomas, Charles K.  1958.  The Phonetics of American English.  New York
Wetmore, Thomas H.  1959.  "The low-central and low back vowels in the English of the Eastern United States."  Publications of the American Dialect Society 32  (of interest to Mid-Atlantic linguistics (NY, PA): pp. 25-58, pp. 107-115)

State by State Listings

In this section, each state is considered individually from north to south.  The references directly under the state name deal with speech in the entire state, or large regions of it.  Following the state listings are city and county listings in alphabetical order. Occasionally, ethnic groups will also be referenced in this way.

New York State
Bowen, B.L.  1910.  "A Word List from Western New York."  Dialect Notes 3 (Part 6):435-451
Brandt, H.C.G.  1917.  (NY State Terms)
Crowningshield, Gerald.  1933.  "Dialect of Northeastern New York."  American Speech 8 (No. 2):43-45
De Camp, L. Sprague.  1944.  "Pronunciation of Upstate New York Place Names."  American Speech 19:250-265
Kirby, Thomas A.  1947.  "Notes on Virginia and North Carolina words (PADS 5 & 6) familiar in Western NY."  Publications of the American Dialect Society 8:23-26
McDavid, Raven I.  1951.  "Midland and Canadian Words in Upstate New York."  American Speech 26:248-256
McDavid, Raven I.  1951.  "The Folk Vocabulary of New York State."  New York Folklore Quarterly 7:173-192.
Monroe, B.S.  1896.  "Pronunciation of English in New York State."  Dialect Notes 1:445-456
Palmer, F.L.  1922.  "Dialect Words from 'The Pioneers'."  Dialect Notes 1 (Part 8):185-186
Shulters, J.R.  1922.  "Hop-field terms from Western New York."  Dialect Notes 5 (Part 5):182-183
Thomas, C.K.  1935-37.  "Pronunciation in Upstate New York."  American Speech 10 (No.2):107-112; (No.3):208-212; (No.4):292-297; 11 (No.1);68-77; (No.2):142-144; (No.4):307-313; 12 (No.2):122-127
Thomas, C.K.  1942.  "Pronunciation in Downstate New York."  American Speech 17:30-41
White, Henry Adelbert.  1912.  "A Word List from Central New York."  Dialect Notes 3 (Part 8):564-569

New York: Buffalo
McConnell, Oviatt.  1937.  "Slang as she is slung in Buffalo."  Times (Buffalo), Jan. 10, 1937
New York: Ithaca
Emerson, O.F.  1891.  "The Ithaca Dialect."  Dialect Notes 1:85-173
Monroe, B.S.  1901.  "Ithaca Local Circle Word List."  Dialect Notes 1 (Part 8):395-400.
Northrup, C.S.  1896.  "Word List from Cornell"  Dialect Notes 1:411-427.
New York: Madison County
Russell, Jason Almus.  1929.  "Colloquial Expressions from Madison County, New York."  American Speech 5 (no.2):151-153.
New York: New York City
Anisman, Paul H.  1975.  Some Phonological Correlates of Code Switching in the English of Puerto Rican Teenagers in New York City.  PhD dissertation, University of Rochester
Babbitt, E.H.  1896.  "The English of the lower classes in New York City and vicinity."  Dialect Notes 1:457-464.
Berger, Marshall D.  1968.  "The Internal Dynamics of a Metropolitan New York Vocalic Paradigm."  American Speech 43:40-50
Bronstein, Arthur J.  1962.  "Let's Take Another Look at New York City Speech."  American Speech 37:13-26
Cohen, Paul.  1970.  The Tensing and Raising of Short A in the Metropolitan area of New York City.  Master's thesis, Columbia University
Disenhouse, David S.  1974.  Phonological Manifestations of Ethnic Identification: the Jewish Community of New York City.  PhD dissertation, New York University.
Ellis, Michael Lawrence III.  1993.  New York Fun-ics: You Can Talk Like New York City.  Wayne, PA: Valley Forge Publishing
Frank, Yakira.  1948.  The Speech of New York City.  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
Gold, David L.  1981.  "Three New-York-Cityisms."  American Speech 56:17-32
Hubbell, Allan F.  1962.  The Pronunciation of English in New York City: Consonants and Vowels.  New York: King's Crown Press, Columbia University.
Labov, William.  1966.  The Social Stratification of English in New York City.  Washington, D.C: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Parker, Dan.  1942.  (verse in Brooklynese) N.Y. Times Daily Mirror?
Prince, John D.  1934.  'Brooklyn and New York (Pronunciation)'  American Speech 9:295
Thomas, Charles K.  1935.  "Standards of Pronunciation in New York City."  Quarterly Journal of Speech 21:265-266.
 ----- .  1947.  "The Place of New York City in American Linguistic Geography."  Quarterly Journal of Speech 33-314-320.  (40:81-82?)
 ----- .  1951.  "New York City Pronunciation."  American Speech 26:122-123
Tierney, John.  1995.  "Can We Talk?"  New York Times Magazine  Jan 22, 1995.  p. 16
Waldo, George S.  1959.  "'He Lives on the Other Side of the Street'."  American Speech 34:101-108  (different meanings for this expression in Brooklyn and Yonkers)
New York: Roxbury
Shapleigh, Mrs. F.E.  1913.  "Word List from Roxbury, New York."  Dialect Notes 4 (Part 1):54

New Jersey
Bradley, Paul.  1980.  "Talkin' Joisey."  New Jersey Monthly 4:53-56, 87-93.  (March 1980)
Foster, Robert A.  1978.  Lexical Variation in New Jersey.
Frisinger, Ann Louise Sen.  1973.  The Linguistic Geography of Eighteenth Century New Jersey Speech: Phonology.  PhD dissertation, Princeton University.  353 pp.
Hilaire, Paul.  1975.  A Study of Variations in the Pronunciation of English among Ninth-Grade Students in New Jersey.  PhD dissertation, Rutgers University
Lee, F.B. and Skillman, W.J.  "Jerseyisms."  Dialect Notes 1 (Part 7): 327-334
Lee, F.B. and Skillman, W.J. "Jerseyisms--Additions and Corrections."  Dialect Notes 1 (Part 8): 382-383.
Preston, David Lee.  1996.  “Here’s a vote for ‘Whisojerdiwaitonics’.”  Philadelphia Inquirer, Monday December 30, 1996, B02 edition C. South Jersey section.
Preston, David Lee.  1997.  “Would the real yiz please come forward?”  Philadelphia Inquirer, Tuesday January 7, 1997, B02 edition C. South Jersey section.
Wilson, David E.  1997.  “Listen up: there’s more than one way to talk like a ‘Joiseyan’.”  Philadelphia Inquirer, Monday March 17, 1997, B01, edition C. South Jersey section.
New Jersey: Burlington
Pugh, Delia H.  1954.  "Some expressions heard in New Jersey".  American Speech 29:228
New Jersey: Cape May County
Stose, Dr. Anna Jonas.  1975.  "Old Cape Sayings."  The Cape May County Magazine of History and Geneaology 7:216 (June '75)
New Jersey: Pine Barrens
Schmidt, R. Marilyn.  2001.  Piney Talk: What does a Piney Mean When He Says...  Pine Barrens Press.

Allen, W.H.  1917.  "Pennsylvania Word-List".  Dialect Notes 4:157-158
Anonymous.  1870.  [Dialects in the Keystone State].  Nation 11:56.  July 28, 1870.  
Anonymous.  1875.  [idioms collected in Central Pennsylvania].  Nation 21:8.  July 1, 1875.
DeBoer, Kathryn B.  1971.  A Study of the Relationship of Distractibility and Dialect Differences in Pennsylvania.  Dissertation, University of Denver
Hankey, Clyde T.  1965.  "'Tiger', 'Tagger' and [ai] in Western Pennsylvania."  American Speech 40:226-228
 ----- .   1965.  "Diphthongal Variants of [e] and [ae] in Western Pennsylvania."  American Speech 40: 228-229
 ----- .   1972.  "Notes on West Penn-Ohio Phonology."  in Davis, Lawrence M, ed.  Studies in Honor of Raven I McDavid, Jr.  pp 49-61
Heydrick, B.A.  1916.  "Pennsylvania Word-List."  Dialect Notes 4 (Part 5): 337-339
Johnson, Bruce A.  1971.  "The Western Pennsylvania Dialect of American English."  Journal of the International Phonetic Association 1:69-73
Lowman, Guy Sumner.  1940.  "Report on the Linguistic Geography of Pennsylvania."  Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society ?
Maxfield, Ezra Kempton.  1931.  "The Speech of South-Western Pennsylvania."  American Speech 7 (No. 1): 18-20
Mook, Maurice A.  1957.  "Northwestern Pennsylvania Wellerisms" Journal of American Folklore 70:183-184
[phrases from Crawford County 1915-1935]
Newlon, Claude M.  1928.  "Dialects on the Western Pennsylvania Frontier."  American Speech 4 (No.2): 104-110
Salvucci, Claudio R.  1997.  Dictionary of Pennsylvanianisms.  Bucks County, PA: Evolution Publishing
Shields, Kenneth Jr.  1985.  "Germanisms in Pennsylvania English: An Update."  American Speech 60:228-237
Shoemaker, Henry Wharton.  "Old Time Words."  Pennsylvania Folklore Society Publication No. 12.  Altoona, PA: Times-Tribune Press.
Shoemaker, Henry Wharton.  Thirteen Hundred Old Time Words of British, Continental or Aboriginal Origins, still in use among the Pennsylvania Mountain People.  Altoona, PA: Times-Tribune Press, 1930.  75 pp.
Tucker, R. Whitney.  1934.  "Linguistic Substrata in Pennsylvania and Elsewhere."  Language 10:1-5
Zimmerman, H.E.  1896.  "Word List from Pennsylvania."  Dialect Notes 1 (Part 9):411-427
Pennsylvania: Bedford
Ashcom, B.B.  1953.  "Notes on the Language of the Bedford, Pennsylvania Subarea."  American Speech 28:241-255
Pennsylvania: Bucks County
Heap, Norman A.  1983.  A Word List from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1850-1876.  University of Alabama Press
Pennsylvania: Greene County
Braden, Tyra.  1993.  Viola! It's Easy to understand Greene-ese. Allentown Morning Call, September 23, 1993.
Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Germans
Gates, Gary.  1987.  "How to speak Dutchified English"  Intercourse, PA: Good Books
Gates, Gary.  1998.  "How to speak Dutchified English, Wolume 2 (TWOAH)"  Intercourse, PA: Good Books
Page, Eugene R.  1937.  "English in the Pennsylvania German area."  American Speech 12:203-6
Struble, George G.  1935.  "The English of the Pennsylvania Germans."  American Speech 10:163-172
Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh
Abel, Ken, and Abel, Jackie.  1992.  The Tongue-in-Cheek Guide to Pittsburgh.  Carnegie, PA: ABELexpress
Ellis, Michael Lawrence III.  1993.  Pittsburgh Fun-ics: Yunz Can Talk Like D'Berg.  Wayne, PA: Valley Forge Publishing
McCool, Sam.  1982.  Sam McCool's New Pittsburghese: How to Speak like a Pittsburgher.  Pittsburgh: Goodwill Industries of Pittsburgh
NB. A thorough bibliography on the Pittsburgh dialect has been compiled by Barbara Johnstone at Carnegie Mellon University and can be found online at: http://english.cmu.edu/home/johnstone/recentpubs.htm)
Pennsylvania: Philadelphia
Ash, Sharon.  1982.  "The Vocalization of Intervocalic /l/ in Philadelphia."  The SECOL Review 6:162-175
Cofer, Thomas Michael.  1972.  Linguistic Variability in a Philadelphia Speech Community.  Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Ellis, Michael Lawrence III.  1993.  Philly Fun-ics: Now Yuze Can Talk Like Us.  Wayne, PA: Valley Forge Publishing
Ferguson, Charles A.  1975.  "'Short a' in Philadelphia English."  In E. Smith (ed.), Studies in Honor of George L. Trager, The Hague: Mouton, pp. 259-274
Hindle, Donald.  1975.  Syntactic Variation in Philadelphia: Positive Anymore.  Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Working Papers on Linguistic Change and Variation.
Labov, William. (ed.)  1980.  Locating Language in Time and Space.  New York: Academic Press
 ----- .  1989.  "The exact description of the speech community: Short 'a' in Philadelphia".  In R. Fasold and D. Schiffrin, (eds.) Language Change and Variation, Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1-57.
Lebofsky, Dennis.  1970.  The Lexicon of the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area.  PhD dissertation, Princeton University.
Poplack, Shana and Sankoff, David.  1987.  "The Philadelphia story in the Spanish Caribbean."  American Speech 62:291-314
Quinn, Jim.  1975.  "How to Talk Like a Philadelphian.", Philadelphia Magazine, 66:11  pp. 136-154  (Nov '75)
 ----- .  1976.  "How to Talk Like a Philadelphian Part II.", Philadelphia Magazine 67:3  pp. 124-127  (Mar '76)
Salvucci, Claudio R.  1995.  A Grammar of the Philadelphia Dialect.  Bucks County, PA: Evolution Publishing
 ----- .  1996.  The Philadelphia Dialect Dictionary.  Bucks County, PA: Evolution Publishing
Tucker, R. Whitney.  1944.  "Notes on the Philadelphia Dialect."  American Speech 19:37-42
 ----- .   1964.  "More on the Philadelphia Dialect."  American Speech 39:157-158
Pennsylvania: Quakers
Hench, Atcheson L.  1929.  "Nominative 'thou' and 'thee'"  American Speech 4
Maxfield, Ezra Kempton.  1926.  "Quaker 'Thee' and Its History."  American Speech 1 (No. 12):638-644
Maxfield, Ezra Kempton.  1929.  "Quaker 'Thou' and 'Thee'."  American Speech 4 (No. 5):359-361
Pennypacker, Isaac R.  1927.  "The Quaker Origins."  American Speech 29 (No. 9):395-402
Philips, Edith.  1927.  "Polite address in Pennsylvania."  American Speech 2:458
Tibbals, Kate Watkins.  1926.  "The speech of plain Friends: a preliminary survey."  American Speech 1:193-209
Pennsylvania: Schuylkill County
McFadden, Amy, et al.  1995.  Coalspeak: The (un)official dictionary of the Schuylkill County, OA Anthracite Coal Region.  Marlboro, MA: CoalRegion Enterprises.
Editorial.  It’s Schuylkonics, speak it with pride.  1997.  Pottsville Republican and Herald.  Jan. 11, 1997.  
Pennsylvania: Scranton
De Camp, L. Sprague.  1940.  "Scranton Pronunciation."  American Speech, 15:368-372
Pennsylvania: Snyder County
Wilson, A.H.  1948.  "English Spoken by Pennsylvania Germans in Snyder County."  American Speech 23:236-238

Greet, William Cabell.  1933.  "Delmarva Speech".  American Speech 8:56-63
Miller, Corey. 1993. "Intrusive l in Delaware English." Unpublished paper presented at NWAVE 22, Ottawa.
Tanzer, Virginia. 1981. ? [Southern Delaware manner of speaking]. Column for "The Whale." ????. Lewes, DE.
Tanzer, Virginia. 1983. Call It Delmarvalous. McClean, VA:EPM Publications

Gilbert, Glenn G.  1986.  "The English of the Brandywine Population: a Triracial isolate in Southern Maryland."  in Montgomery, Michael and Bailey, Guy, eds, Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White.  University of Alabama Press. pp. 102-110
Greatman, Bonnie M.  1970.  A Dialect Atlas of Maryland.  PhD dissertation, New York University.
Hines, Carole P.  and Shores, David L.  1984.  "The Vocabulary of the Watermen of the Chesapeake Bay."  Abstract in the Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 16.3.4
Jones, Harry L.  1965.  "An Approach to Dialectal Bilingualism: Negro Folk Speech in America"  Maryland English Journal 4.1.50-55
Kuethe, J. Louis.  1932.  "Johns Hopkins Jargon."  American Speech 7 (no.5):327-338
Kuethe, J. Louis.  1935.  "'Water' Terms in Maryland."  American Speech 10 (no.2):153-154
McKinsey, Folger.  1938.  "Colloquial Expression Indigenous to Maryland."  Baltimore Sun, Dec. 5, 1938, p.6 col. 8
Read, Allen Walker.  1933.  "Boucher's Linguistic Pastoral of Colonial Maryland"  Dialect Notes 6 (part 7): 337-360; add'l comment pp. 360-363
Read, Allen Walker.  1940.  "Words from Maryland."  American Speech 15:451-452
Shores, David L.  1989.  "The Islands of the Chesapeake Bay and Their Language."  in Ferris William and Wilson, Charles, eds, Encyclopedia of Southern Culture
Zimmerman, Rev. H.E.  1916.  "Word List from Maryland."  Dialect Notes 4:343
Maryland: Baltimore
Beard, Gordon.  1990.  Basic Baltimorese II.  Baltimore: no publisher.
Garvey, Catherine and McFarlane, Paul T.  1968.  "A Preliminary Study of Standard English Speech Patterns in the Baltimore City Public Schools."  Educational Resources Information Center document 019 265.
Goodspeed, John.  no date.  A Fairly Compleat Lexicon of Baltimorese: Compiled from Mr. Peep's Diary  2nd ed.  Baltimore: Baltimore Sunpapers.
Hench, Atcheson L.  1951.  "'Arab': a Baltimore Word."  American Speech 26:70-72
 ----- .  1956.  "Baltimore's 'Arab': a further note."  American Speech 31.310:311
Hisley, Ann Marie.  1964.  An historical analysis of the development of Baltimore dialect.  College Park: University of Maryland thesis.
Kerr, Nora Fields.  1963.  Baltimore city English.  Washington:Georgetown University thesis.
 ----- .  1966.  "The pronunciation of Baltimore city English."  Occasional Papers in TESOL 1.2. 13-21, 66-68
Schnitzer, Marc L.  1972.  "The 'Baltimore /o/' and Generative Phonology."  General Linguistics 12:86-93
Smith, Ernest.  1993.  Hey Hon!  How to Talk Like a Real Bawlamoron.  Baltimore:38th Street Press.
Wagner, Philip M.  1941.  "Baltimorese."  American Speech 14:230
Maryland: Eastern Shore
Byron, Gilbert.  1965.  "Eastern Shore Idiom."  Maryland English Journal 4:12-14
Carey, George.  1971.  "Folk Speech and Naming."  from A Faraway Time and Place: Lore of the Eastern Shore  pp. 233-249  Washington:Robert B. Luce
Fisher, Arthur King.  1986.  Eastern Shore Wordbook.  Parksley, VA.
Fisher, Arthur King.  1995.  Entertaining Words from the Eastern Shore.  Parksley, VA.
Maryland: Garrett County
Warnick, Florence.  1942.  The Dialect of Garrett County, Maryland.  Private Printing.
Maryland: St. Mary's County
?.  1982.  "A dialect study of St. Mary's County, Maryland."  Chronicles of St. Mary's  30:497-504, 507-515

Washington, DC
Carroll, William S.  1967.  "Teaching a Second Dialect and some Implications for TESOL: A Teaching Experiment."  TESOL Quarterly 1.1.31-36
Magovern, Anita L.  1968.  The social stratification of the phoneme /r/ in Washington, D.C.  Washington:Georgetown University thesis.
Putnam, George and O'Hern, Edna.  1955.  "The Status Significance of an Isolated Urban Dialect."  Language dissertation no. 53, Language 31.4.2  Catholic University of America Studies in Sociology 40.  Washington:Catholic University of America dissertation

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